Asmacadamia gradually becomes a cash crop, Amafh Farms, the leading grower and exporter has called upon Ugandans to embrace it. The farm was one of the exhibitors during the 2022 Harvest Money Expo at Kololo airstrip. The farm is located in Mityana district.
“We have 1,200 acres under macadamia. We are also supporting 1,000 farmers across the country, but we need at least 40,000 out growers if we are to achieve our target,” Shayaan Morvi, one of the managers of the farm says. He says the farm produces at least 3,000 metric tonnes of macadamia, most of which is exported.
“We train farmers, give them seedlings and then buy back the produce from them,” Morvi says.
Last year, the Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) started promoting macadamia as one of the new priority crops in the country. The nuts, are the fruits of macadamia trees, a species of evergreen trees indigenous to Australia.
Macadamia was introduced to Hawaii in the 1880 and established in the 1930 as a commercial crop. The countries growing Macadamia on large scale include Australia, Brazil, Israel, Thailand and United States. In Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa and Uganda.
A kilogramme of raw macadamia nuts goes for sh9,000 per kilogramme. It takes five years for a macadamia tree to start bearing fruit. Each tree will give two kilograms per season at the beginning. When a tree gets to seven years, you get from 15-20kg per season. At 10 years, it is 60-80kg from each tree every season.
Morvi says macadamia has several products that are made out of it. These include cooking oil, as an ingredient in cookies, chocolate and ice cream, among others. The leaves can be used as animal feed, and the hard seed coat can be used for cooking.
According to MAAIF figures, in 2019, Uganda sold 201 tonnes of macadamia nuts. For 2019, the market for Uganda macadamia nuts increased by 183.099% compared to about 80tonnes in 2018. Macadamia nuts’ exports grew by 139.29% netting the nation $0.54m for the year 2019.
Eva Rwangpako, a starting macadamia farmer, says the new crop offers wider opportunities as it improves earnings.
“It is very interesting and I look forward to be a farmer of macadamia,” she says.
According to Morvi, the varieties used are the Kenyan selections namely Muranga (MRG20), Kirinyaga (KRG15), Embu (EMBU1) and Kembu (KMB3), because they are high yielding and their breeding lines can easily be traced.
Macadamias prefer fertile, well-drained soils, rainfall of 1,000–2,000 mm (40–80 in), and temperatures not falling below 10 °C although once established, they can withstand light frosts, with an optimum temperature of 25 °C. Inter-planting with two cultivars, such as 344 and 660, improves yield through cross-pollination. This means that they can be grown across most of Uganda, apart from Karamoja.
A farmer can start with as low as one acre of land and make a profit. However, because it is a long term crop, growing it on hired land may turn out to be troublesome in the long run, since the contract for the lease may end before the farmer earns good profits.
When planting, the hole has to be 2 by two feet with a spacing of 8 metres by 8 metres. In other words, on one acre if you are to plant other crops, you plant between 100 trees of macadamia. Macadamia has two seasons a year that is October to March and from June to August.
- You can integrate apiary around the orchard. This can generate additional revenue through honey production, but also improve the pollination process.
- To avoid over weeding, introduce low grazers like sheep. This helps to reduce herbicide use and weeding costs.
- Intercropping macadamia nuts with other crops is one way to generate early returns. Commonly, coffee is sometimes grown between macadamia nut trees.