Cheese is food derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavours, texture and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goat or sheep.
During production, the milk is usually acidified and adding the enzyme rennet causes coagulation. The solids are separated and pressed into final form. Some cheese have moulds on the rind or throughout. Most cheese melt at cooking temperature.
Utensils for making cheese
- A thermometer with a rang of 20-100Oc
- A cheesecloth
- A bucket for coagulation of milk
- A measuring cup
- Cutlery (spoons to measure rennet and/ or acids; knife curdled milk, skimmer to scoop curd out of whey)
- Cheese moulds
How to make cheese
- The mile for making cheese should preferably be pasteurized (e.g 72°C for 15 seconds, or 63°C for 30 minutes). More intense heating is not desirable because it reduces the curdling of milk.
- Heat the cheese milk to 63°C and maintain at that temperature for 30 minutes to destroy all germs.
- Cool the milk to 40-45°C, and then add coagulating acid or rennet enzyme.
- Stir for the enzyme to be distributed evenly. Then leave to coagulate..
- Add rennet (1 ml rennet per four liters of milk). The milk will coagulate in 1 hour
- Cut the curd into 2-3 cm cubes.
- Leave for 15 minutes. Cut the curd gently to cause whey separation
- When the curds settle, pour out the whey
- Transfer the curds and some whey to wooden cheese mould lined with cheesecloth.
- Fold the cheese cloth and place lid on mould
- Allow curds to drain. Leave the curds in the mould overnight.
- Cut the curd into blocks of suitable size and sprinkle them with salt
- Place the salted blocks in 15% brine solution for 12 hours. Turn the curd blocks at least once during the salting.
- Remove and place in the curing and ripening room, preferably at 12-20°C. Leave for several days, while turning as regular, until mature.
- Remove moulds from the ripening cheese by cleaning with water or vinegar.
For some types, the ripening cheese can be smoked with fire to develop a flavor.
Whey is the by-product of cheese making. Whey can be used as animal feed, especially for pigs and dogs, depending on its acidity. Some types of whey are used for making cheese or whey drinks.