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Home Farming Tips How To Guard Mangoes Against Common Mango Pests, Diseases

How To Guard Mangoes Against Common Mango Pests, Diseases

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The following are the major pests of Mango in mango production:

Mango Seed Weevil

Identification:

• The adult is 6 – 9 mm long with grayish brown colour

• Usually active after dusk

• Pretend to be dead when disturbed

• Hide on the bark of mango tree trunks

Damage

• Feeds on leaves, tender shoots or flower buds

• The beetle lays eggs on young fruit

• Larva burrows into the flesh and destroys the seed/embryo

• No external signs of fruit damage

Control

• Collect fallen fruits and destroy by burying or burning

• Paint the tree trunk with agricultural lime mixture at flowering to prevent adult weevils from climbing up the tree

• Spray biweekly with Deltamethrin (Decis 2.5EC®). Spray before flowering and during fruit set and repeat every 14 days focused on single fruits

Mango Gall midges

Identification:

• The gall midges are small insects measuring about 3 mm in length

Damage:

• Adults lay eggs on young tender leaves

• The larvae mine the leaves producing galls or swelling tissues/pimples

• Dark green, circular galls randomly distributed on the leaf blade

• Under heavy infestations, the leaves wrinkle and remain necrotic and eventually drops

Control:

• Orchard sanitation is important

• Clear weedy areas since adults prefer to stay on these plants

• Prune crowded branches (particularly irregular branches) to allow light penetration

• Conserve natural enemies

• Spray insecticides e.g.) Deltamethrin such as Decis 2.5EC® mixed with mineral oil (mineral oil should Not exceed 2 % i.e. 400 ml in 20 L of water) as soon as new shoots and leaves appear

Fruit Fly

Identification

• Adult fruit flies are small, about 4 to 7 mm long, dull brownish-yellow to brownish-black with red eyes in some species

• Yellowish flies that are commonly attracted to fermenting fruit of all kinds

• Fruit flies lay eggs under the skin of mature and ripening fruits

• Eggs hatch in 1 – 2 days

• Larvae are about 6 – 7 mm long and can be found in very ripe cull and damaged fruit in the fields

Damage

• Fruit flies cause direct damage by puncturing the fruit skin to lay eggs

• During egg laying, bacteria from the intestinal flora of the fly are introduced into the fruit.

  These bacteria cause rotting of the tissues surrounding the egg.

• The eggs hatch, maggots feed on the fruit flesh making galleries. These provide entry for pathogens and increase the fruit decay

• Fruit dropping to the ground just before the maggots pupate

• Premature ripening of fruits

Control:

• Collect all fallen fruits and destroy by burying at least 50 cm deep or put them in a drum of water with 1 inch oil for 2 weeks.

• Spray with Deltamethrin (DECIS2.5 EC®) etc. The chemicals can be mixed with hydrolyzed protein at a rate of 200 – 1,000 ml/tree or sugar/ molasses and sprayed to act as bait

• Harvest mangoes before they become ripe

• Use of fruit fly trap such as Auto Dissemination Device (ADD) by Real IPM, Hydrolysed protein (CERA TRAP)

• Use of natural enemies, especially parasitic wasps (Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Fopius arisanus etc.)

• Post-harvest Treatment (Hot Water Dip): Dip fruits for 5 minutes at 500 C water

Mango Scales

Identification:

• Small round reddish brown to white insects

• Usually found in clusters which are immobile

• Insects can be 1 – 7 mm long while the cluster can be 2 cm in diameter

• Clusters found on upper surface of leaves, branches, stem and fruit

• Females are circular in appearance, have dark spot on one side, have neither wings nor legs

• Adult males have two wings

Damage

• Scales suck the cell sap from the infested areas

• Infested leaves turn pale green to yellow eventually die and drop

• Infested fruits have pink blemishes and drop

• Poor growth and dieback of branches

• Infested young seedlings may die

• Honey dew is produced which form sooty mold, thus reduction of photosynthetic capacity

Control

• Cut and burn infested tree parts

• Use of natural enemies e.g.) Parasitic Wasps, Ladybird Beetle, Lacewings etc.

• Spray with insecticide mixed with white mineral oils 2%: paraffin oil is sprayed at 3 % water emulsion. Avoid spraying mineral oil during very hot periods of the day

• Use of D-C Tron (Caltex oil) to suffocate the insects.

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