Garlic prefers well-drained, fertile soils with plenty of organic matter.
In Uganda we have two seasons of garlic farming February/march planting and harvesting in July /August and September/October planting, harvest in January/ February, however if you are growing a few plants for home use, you can easily irrigate them, hence not waiting for the rains.
The plant tolerates a wide pH range but prefers slightly acidic soils ranging in 6.2-6.8.
Break apart garlic cloves from the bulb a few days before planting, but keep the papery husk on each individual clove.
Plant each clove 2.5cm below the surface with the pointed end facing up so that the bulb sits just below the soil surface.
Plant each clove 10 cm (4 inches) apart and in rows 30 cm (12 inches) apart.
Water every 3-5 days during bulbing. Garlic requires adequate levels of nitrogen; therefore fertilize especially if you see yellowing of leaves.
Keep an eye out on white rot. It’s the fungus that may attack garlic in cool weather. Not much can be done to control or prevent the problem except rotating your crops and cleaning up the area after harvesting. Harvest time depends on when you plant, but the clue would be to look for yellow tops.
When harvesting carefully lift the bulbs with a spade or a garden fork.
Pull the plants carefully brush off the soil, and let them cure in an airy, shady spot for 2 weeks. Hang them upside down on a string in bunches of 4-6. Make sure all sides get good air circulation.
The bulbs are cured and ready to store when their wrappers are dry and papery, and the roots are dry. At this point the cloves should be easy to crack and the root crown is hard.